Monday, October 8, 2012

Big Questions, to be sure

A History of Philosophy from Socrates to Sartre

by Henry Piper (all rights reserved)

(Links to chapters at left)

Distinguishing Science, Philosophy and Religion

Knowledge and Reality
I.          How do we Know that 2+3=5?:  Plato’s Theories of Recollection and Reality
II.        What Is the Meaning of Being?: Aristotle’s Response to Plato
III.       Descartes’s Meditations I and II: What Do You Know―Is Anything Real or is Everything Doubtful?
IV.       Is Matter All that Is? The Materialism of Hobbes
V.        Does Social Inequality Make Sense?: Rousseau Responds to Hobbes
VI.       Does Physical Matter Exist?: Berkeley’s “Immaterialism”
VII.     The Empiricism of David Hume: The End of Metaphysics?
VIII.    Kant’s Response to Hume: a Transcendental Philosophy
IX.       Heidegger: Retrieving the Meaning of Philosophy

Human Nature and Freedom
X.        Freud: Psyche and Civilization
XI.       Erich Fromm Responds to Freud: The Art of Loving
XII.     The Meaning of Freedom: Augustine’s “Two Wills”
XIII.    A Philosophy of Freedom: Sartre’s “Atheistic Existentialism”
XIV.    Wisdom By Example: The Life and Death of Socrates

Ethics [Note: This entire section on ethics is included on one link, at left; scroll down for Mill and Kant]
Introduction: Is There a Real Difference Between Right and Wrong?: Confronting Ethical Relativism
XV.    Mill: The Utility of Utilitarianism 
XVI.   Kant: Morality as Motivation, and Human Autonomy as Highest Good

The Existence of God
XVII.  Can We Prove that God Exists?: Anselm’s Proslogion
XVIII. Finding God in the World: Thomas Aquinas
XIX.   Descartes Meditations III-VI: the Proof of the Existence of God and of Corporeal Things

The Theory of Evolution: Do Science and Religion Have Anything to Fight Over?